When you complete a paper or project, you will have a list of all the sources you used in your research. In APA style, this list is called References.
Your References list goes at the end — on the back of your project board, at the end of your paper or job book, or on the last slide of your presentation.
Here's an example:
Every time you use a quotation, a piece of information, or an image from another source, cite the source right where you use it, whether it’s on your project board or in your paper, job book, or presentation.
In APA style, use in-text citations with the author/creator, publication date, and page number in parentheses.
For short passages of 40 words or less, use quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quotation. In APA style, put the in-text citation at the end of the quotation, and then add a period (after the closing parenthesis). Here's an example:
For longer passages of more than 40 words, use a block quote. In APA style, a block quote is a separate paragraph, with all lines indented and double-spaced. Do not use quotation marks around a block quote. Put a period at the end of the quotation, and then add the in-text citation (after the period). Here's an example:
When you want to use someone else’s idea but put it in your own words, paraphrase or summarize. To paraphrase or summarize an idea, you need to condense or clarify that idea. It’s not enough to take someone else’s sentence and replace some of the words; you need to truly understand the idea and state it in a new way.
In APA style, put the in-text citation at the end of your paraphrase or summary, and then add a period (after the closing parenthesis). Here's an example:
In APA style, an image requires a caption with an in-text citation and an entry in References.
An image caption provides information about the image and an in-text citation for the source where you found the image. Give each image a figure number (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.).
If the image is a drawing, rendering, infographic, or other illustration, include:
If the image is a photograph of a building, include:
If the image is a photograph or reproduction of a work of art, include:
If you don’t see all of this information in the caption of the image or the text around it, look for a separate list of image credits. This list is often called List of Illustrations, Illustration Credits, Image Credits, or simply Credits. In books, it may be either at the beginning or at the end of the book.
At the end of the caption, insert an in-text citation citing the book, website or other source where you found the image. Here's an example:
No citation is needed for personal photographs or other images you created yourself when using APA style. These images do still require a caption, but you do not need to include an in-text citation in the caption, and you do not need to include an entry for the image in your References list.
In APA style, only retrievable sources are listed as References. Since a lecture heard in person is not retrievable by anyone else, do not include it in your References; the same is true for personal communications such as interviews and emails.
If you use a quotation or idea from a class lecture or other personal communication, do cite it using an in-text citation. Here's an example: