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Citing Sources

Tips on citing sources from the DI Library

Bibliography

When you complete a paper or project, you will have a list of all the sources you used in your research. In Chicago style, this list is called the Bibliography.

Your Bibliography goes at the end — on the back of your project board, at the end of your paper or job book, or on the last slide of your presentation.

  • Organize your Bibliography alphabetically by the author’s last name. If there is no author, alphabetize by the first main word of the title.
  • Single-space each entry in your Bibliography. Put a blank line between each entry.
  • For each entry, the first line is not indented and all other lines are indented.

Here's an example:

Bell, Julian. Mirror of the World: A New History of Art. New York, NY: Thames & Hudson, 2007.

Blake, William. Pity. Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org (accessed
            October 16, 2015).

Eames: The Architect and the Painter. Directed by Jason Cohn and Bill Jersey. First Run
            Features, 2011. DVD.

Ruvoldt, Maria. "Michelangelo's Dream." Art Bulletin 85, no. 1 (March 2003): 86-113. ProQuest
           Central
 (accessed October 16, 2015).

Footnotes or Endnotes

Every time you use a quotation, a piece of information, or an image from another source, cite the source right where you use it, whether it’s on your project board or in your paper, job book or presentation.

In Chicago style, use footnotes or endnotes. The first time you cite a particular source, use the full bibliographic information and page number, either at the bottom of the page (a footnote) or at the end of the paper (an endnote). Here's an example:

            3. Maria Ruvoldt, "Michelangelo's Dream," Art Bulletin 85, no. 1 (March 2003):100, ProQuest
Central
 (accessed October 12, 2015).

 

Note that in a Chicago-style footnote or endnote, the page number is in the middle of the note.

The next time you cite that same source, you can use a shortened note. A shortened note includes only the last name of the first author, the first few words of the title, and the page number. Here's an example:

            6. Ruvoldt, "Michelangelo's Dream," 102.

 

If there is no author, simply leave that element out. If there are no page numbers, simply leave that element out. Here's an example:

            10. Eames.

 

Librarian Tip

Use your software’s built-in footnote tool to insert footnotes or endnotes; the software will automatically format and number the notes correctly.

  • In Microsoft Word, go to the References menu and click Insert Footnote or Insert Endnote.
  • In Mac Pages, go to the Insert menu and select Footnote (you can convert it to an endnote later).
  • In Google Docs, go to the Insert menu and select Footnote (there is no easy way to create endnotes in Google Docs).

Quotations

Short quotations

For short passages of one sentence or less, use quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quotation. In Chicago style, put the footnote or endnote after the closing quotation mark. Here's an example:

To help viewers understand that the central youth is dreaming, Michelangelo made some figures look more

finished than others. There is "a distinction between the 'reality' of the central pair and the insubstantial nature

of the images in the arc.”3

_______________________________________________________________________________________
            3. Maria Ruvoldt, "Michelangelo's Dream," Art Bulletin 85, no. 1 (March 2003):100, ProQuest
Central
 (accessed October 12, 2015).

 

Long quotations

For longer passages of more than one sentence, use a block quote. In Chicago style, a block quote is a separate paragraph, with all lines indented and single-spaced (the rest of the paper is double-spaced). Do not use quotation marks around a block quote. Put a period at the end of the quotation, and then add the note. Here's an example:

To help viewers understand that the central youth is dreaming, Michelangelo made some figures look more

finished than others:

            The contrasting states of finish in the drawing create a distinction between the 'reality' of the central
            pair and the insubstantial nature of the images in the arc. The misty quality of the cloud of figures
            asserts their status as 'dream visions,' apparitions in the mind of the central figure. Scale and finish
            further define levels of reality, distinguishing between the dreamer and the images he sees in his
            dream.3

_______________________________________________________________________________________
            3. Maria Ruvoldt, "Michelangelo's Dream," Art Bulletin 85, no. 1 (March 2003):100, ProQuest
Central
 (accessed October 12, 2015).

Paraphrasing

When you want to use someone else’s idea but put it in your own words, paraphrase or summarize. To paraphrase or summarize an idea, you need to condense or clarify that idea. It’s not enough to take someone else’s sentence and replace some of the words; you need to truly understand the idea and state it in a new way.

In Chicago style, put the footnote or endnote at the end of your paraphrase or summary, after the final period. Here's an example:

To help viewers understand that the central youth is dreaming, Michelangelo made the central figures look

more substantial while leaving the other figures looking like unfinished sketches.3

_______________________________________________________________________________________
            3. Maria Ruvoldt, "Michelangelo's Dream," Art Bulletin 85, no. 1 (March 2003):100, ProQuest
Central
 (accessed October 12, 2015).

Citing Images

In Chicago style, an image requires a caption with a footnote or endnote and an entry in the Bibliography.

An image caption provides information about the image and a footnote or endnote for the source where you found the image. Give each image a figure number (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc.).

If the image is a drawing, rendering, infographic, or other illustration, include:

  • the title of the image
  • the name of the artist or illustrator
  • the date the image was created

If the image is a photograph of a building, include:

  • the name of the building
  • the name of the architect
  • the date the building was completed
  • the location of the building
  • the name of the photographer
  • the date the photograph was taken

If the image is a photograph or reproduction of a work of art, include:

  • the title of the artwork
  • the name of the artist
  • the date the artwork was created
  • the name of the owner of the artwork (often a museum)
  • the name of the photographer
  • the date the photograph was taken

If you don’t see all of this information in the caption of the image or the text around it, look for a separate list of image credits. This list is often called List of IllustrationsIllustration CreditsImage Credits, or simply Credits. In books, it may be either at the beginning or at the end of the book.

Note: Museums rarely credit an individual photographer. You can cite the museum as the corporate creator of the photograph.

At the end of the caption, insert a footnote or endnote citing the book, website or other source where you found the image. Here's an example:

Fig. 3. Pity, William Blake, ca. 1795, Metropolitan Museum of Art8

_______________________________________________________________________________________
            8. William Blake, Pity, Metropolitan Museum of Art, accessed October 12, 2015, http://www.metmuseum.org.

Citing Lectures

In Chicago style, only retrievable sources are listed in the Bibliography. Since a lecture heard in person is not retrievable by anyone else, do not include it in your Bibliography; the same is true for personal communications such as interviews and emails.

If you use a quotation or idea from a class lecture or other personal communication, do cite it using a footnote or endnote. Here's an example:

Students were encouraged by their instructor to ask the librarians if they had any questions about citing images.5

_______________________________________________________________________________________
            5. Lily Robinson, class lecture, July 7, 2015.