When you complete a paper or project, you will have a list of all the sources you used in your research. In Chicago style, this list is called the Bibliography.
Your Bibliography goes at the end — on the back of your project board, at the end of your paper or job book, or on the last slide of your presentation.
Here's an example:
Every time you use a quotation, a piece of information, or an image from another source, cite the source right where you use it, whether it’s on your project board or in your paper, job book or presentation.
In Chicago style, use footnotes or endnotes. The first time you cite a particular source, use the full bibliographic information and page number, either at the bottom of the page (a footnote) or at the end of the paper (an endnote). Here's an example:
Note that in a Chicago-style footnote or endnote, the page number is in the middle of the note.
The next time you cite that same source, you can use a shortened note. A shortened note includes only the last name of the first author, the first few words of the title, and the page number. Here's an example:
If there is no author, simply leave that element out. If there are no page numbers, simply leave that element out. Here's an example:
Use your software’s built-in footnote tool to insert footnotes or endnotes; the software will automatically format and number the notes correctly.
For short passages of one sentence or less, use quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quotation. In Chicago style, put the footnote or endnote after the closing quotation mark. Here's an example:
For longer passages of more than one sentence, use a block quote. In Chicago style, a block quote is a separate paragraph, with all lines indented and single-spaced (the rest of the paper is double-spaced). Do not use quotation marks around a block quote. Put a period at the end of the quotation, and then add the note. Here's an example:
When you want to use someone else’s idea but put it in your own words, paraphrase or summarize. To paraphrase or summarize an idea, you need to condense or clarify that idea. It’s not enough to take someone else’s sentence and replace some of the words; you need to truly understand the idea and state it in a new way.
In Chicago style, put the footnote or endnote at the end of your paraphrase or summary, after the final period. Here's an example:
In Chicago style, an image requires a caption with a footnote or endnote and an entry in the Bibliography.
An image caption provides information about the image and a footnote or endnote for the source where you found the image. Give each image a figure number (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc.).
If the image is a drawing, rendering, infographic, or other illustration, include:
If the image is a photograph of a building, include:
If the image is a photograph or reproduction of a work of art, include:
If you don’t see all of this information in the caption of the image or the text around it, look for a separate list of image credits. This list is often called List of Illustrations, Illustration Credits, Image Credits, or simply Credits. In books, it may be either at the beginning or at the end of the book.
Note: Museums rarely credit an individual photographer. You can cite the museum as the corporate creator of the photograph.
At the end of the caption, insert a footnote or endnote citing the book, website or other source where you found the image. Here's an example:
In Chicago style, only retrievable sources are listed in the Bibliography. Since a lecture heard in person is not retrievable by anyone else, do not include it in your Bibliography; the same is true for personal communications such as interviews and emails.
If you use a quotation or idea from a class lecture or other personal communication, do cite it using a footnote or endnote. Here's an example: